A list of the key differences between Acorn and PV Climate projects is provided below:


Acorn project

PV Climate project

Intervention types

Smallholder Agroforestry only

Most nature-based interventions (land or marine)

Projects certified against

Acorn Framework and Methodology

PV Climate Project Requirements, Validation and Verification Requirements, and the applied methodology

Certificates generated

CRUs – Ex-post certificates

Represent CO2 removals

fPVCs – Ex-ante certificates (non-retireable)

rPVCs – Ex-post certificates (non-retireable)

vPVCs – Ex-post verified certificates

Can represent removals or reduction of CO2

Project coordinator

Rabobank and local partner organisation(s)

Local partner organisation(s)

Certificate Seller


Local partner organisation


Projects sample validation and verification using a Plan Vivo-approved sampling strategy

All projects validated and verified

Benefit sharing

At least 80% of income from CRU sales to local farmers

At least 60% of income from PVC sales to project participants


Acorn Registry

Plan Vivo Registry