For PV Climate projects that wish to issue Plan Vivo Certificates, they must ensure that project participants have clear ownership of the carbon on their land, which includes having confidence that there are no laws preventing the ownership or trading of carbon by the smallholders. It must also be clear that there is no double-counting of carbon benefits (where more than one entity takes credit for the same CO2 reductions or removals) by demonstrating that no other carbon projects are operating in the same area or, if there are carbon projects operating, that appropriate steps are being taken by both projects to prevent the double counting of carbon.