5. Land tenure and user rights Land tenure or user rights must be secure and stable so that there can be clear ownership, traceability and accountability for ecosystem service benefits, such as carbon reduction or sequestration, and the ability to commit to project interventions for the duration of PES Agreements. Ideally, land tenure will be government-recognised and officially documented. However, we recognise that this is not possible in some countries. Therefore, in such instances, community-recognised land rights can be accepted so long as steps are taken to minimise the risk of local disputes over land tenure and on the condition that the project works with the government to help participants to acquire official recognition of their land tenure.