Recognition and 3rd Party Endorsement

This page contains recent research on Plan Vivo and specific Plan Vivo Projects. This list is by no means exhaustive – if you know of any research you think should be included please let us know.

Plan Vivo

Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1606), 3178-3190

Lessons from community-based paymentsDougill, A. J., Stringer, L. C., Leventon, J., Riddell, M., Rueff, H., Spracklen, D. V., & Butt, E. (2012). Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1606), 3178-3190

Summary

Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world’s poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects.

Estrada, M. (2011). Standards and methods available for estimating project-level REDD+ carbon benefits: reference guide for project developers. CIFOR Working Paper, (52)

Standards and methods available for estimating project-level REDD+ carbon benefitsEstrada, M. (2011). Standards and methods available for estimating project-level REDD+ carbon benefits: reference guide for project developers. CIFOR Working Paper, (52).

Summary

The aim of this reference guide is to identify and recommend best practices and methodological guidance to project developers on how to design robust methodologies to account for the carbon benefits of project activities included under the REDD+ umbrella.

Orrego, J. (2005). The Plan Vivo experience with carbon service provision and the potential lessons for watershed service projects. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK and ECCM, Edinburgh, UK

The Plan Vivo experience with carbon service provision and the potential lessons for watershed service projectsOrrego, J. (2005). The Plan Vivo experience with carbon service provision and the potential lessons for watershed service projects. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK and ECCM, Edinburgh, UK

Summary

Based on evidence from a range of field sites the IIED project, ‘Developing markets for watershed services and improved livelihoods’ is generating debate on the potential role of markets for watershed services. Under this subset of markets for environmental services, downstream users of water compensate upstream land managers for activities that influence the quantity and quality of downstream water. The project purpose is to increase understanding of the potential role of market mechanisms in promoting the provision of watershed services for improving livelihoods in developing countries.

Mentions

Milne, E., Neufeldt, H., Rosenstock, T., Smalligan, M., Cerri, C. E., Malin, D.,F & Paustian, K. (2013). Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts.Environmental Research Letters, 8(1), 015019.

Overcoming the risk of inaction from emissions uncertainty in smallholder agriculture

Milne, E., Neufeldt, H., Rosenstock, T., Smalligan, M., Cerri, C. E., Malin, D.,F & Paustian, K. (2013). Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts.Environmental Research Letters, 8(1), 015019.

Summary

Landscape scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise. However, the problem remains of how to quantify these gains. This article considers current greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods that can be used in a landscape scale analysis in terms of relevance to areas dominated by smallholders in developing countries. In landscape scale carbon accounting frameworks, measurements are an essential element. Sampling strategies need careful design to account for all pools/fluxes and to ensure judicious use of resources. Models can be used to scale-up measurements and fill data gaps. In recent years a number of accessible models and calculators have been developed which can be used at the landscape scale in developing country areas. Some are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and others on dynamic ecosystem models. They have been developed for a range of different purposes and therefore vary in terms of accuracy and usability.

Scolel’Te

Aguilar Rodriguez, A. (2012). Building networks in the Climate Change Convention: co-ordination failure in the establishment of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Mexico (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester)
Building Networks in Climate Change ConventionAguilar Rodriguez, A. (2012). Building networks in the Climate Change Convention: co-ordination failure in the establishment of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in Mexico (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester).

Summary

This thesis evaluates why the implementation of a tree plantation project in Chiapas, Mexico, called Scolel Te failed in its attempt to participate in the CDMs scheme. The Scolel Te project brings together farmers and local organisations into a network of exchange of resources that aims at producing an outcome that is only possible through the co-ordination and co-operation of all participants: the emission of carbon certificates. This thesis studies the co-ordination problems that local actors face at the moment of establishing the carbon projects by identifying how formal and informal mechanisms such as contracts, economic incentives, trust, and reputation, create or solve co-ordination problems in the Scolel Te network. The thesis also describes how changes in the distribution of power among actors affect the functioning of the network and how individual’s interests and strategic alliances have the potential of derailing the aims of the environmental project.

Caplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., & Sills, E. (2011). Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: Lessons for learning about REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(2)

Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projectsCaplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., & Sills, E. (2011). Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: Lessons for learning about REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(2), 152-167.

Summary

The ‘Bali Road Map’ of UNFCCC COP-13 calls for sharing lessons learned from demonstration activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (now known as ‘REDD+’). To develop a feasible yet rigorous strategy for learning from these REDD+ pilots, it is critical to assess previous efforts to evaluate the impacts of ‘pre-REDD+’ avoided deforestation projects. Further, because REDD+ remains a politically volatile issue, with both critics and supporters pointing to the impacts (or lack thereof) of these pre-REDD+ projects, it is important to critically examine the methods employed to assess those impacts. We review the body of literature that makes claims about the socioeconomic and biophysical impacts of pre-REDD+ projects. We find assessments of outcomes or impacts for only five pre-REDD projects. The design, data collection, and analysis methods for understanding the impacts of pre-REDD+ projects frequently lack rigor. In particular, the counterfactual scenarios for establishing socioeconomic impacts are vague, unscientific, or omitted completely.

Paladino, S. (2011). Tracking the Fault Lines of Pro‐Poor Carbon Forestry.Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 33(2)

Tracking the Fault Lines of Pro-Poor Carbon ForestryPaladino, S. (2011). Tracking the Fault Lines of Pro‐Poor Carbon Forestry.Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, 33(2), 117-132.

Summary

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) has been given a principal role in post-Kyoto, climate change agreements. Resulting markets and mechanisms for carbon forestry offsets could generate considerable global revenues for both forest conservation and sustainable rural development; or they may impose political and economic pressures on forest governance that threaten indigenous and rural peoples’ rights. Some inherent challenges to developing carbon forestry projects that support rural peoples’ welfare are reviewed. The experience of Scolel Te’, a carbon forestry project for Mexican indigenous farmers, suggests how projects can be adapted for smallholder provision of carbon services on benign terms and still meet the demands of carbon markets. However, carbon sales alone have not supported investments in knowledge development, institutional learning, and strategic farmer participation needed for significant political or economic change. This supports critiques that policies based on economic valuations of environmental services are unlikely to support social and equity objectives.

Schroth, G., da Mota, M. D. S. S., Hills, T., Soto-Pinto, L., Wijayanto, I., Arief, C. W., & Zepeda, Y. (2011). Linking carbon, biodiversity and livelihoods near forest margins: the role of agroforestry. In Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems (pp. 179-200). Springer Netherland

Linking carbonSchroth, G., da Mota, M. D. S. S., Hills, T., Soto-Pinto, L., Wijayanto, I., Arief, C. W., & Zepeda, Y. (2011). Linking carbon, biodiversity and livelihoods near forest margins: the role of agroforestry. In Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems (pp. 179-200). Springer Netherlands.

Summary

Agroforestry systems distinguish themselves from other forms of agriculture through their ability to store higher amounts of carbon (C) in their biomass, and often also to conserve more biodiversity. However, in both regards they are generally inferior to forests. Therefore, the impact of agroforestry practices on landscape C stocks and biodiversity needs to be analyzed both in terms of the interactions between agroforestry and forest, which may be positive or negative, and in terms of the conservation of C and biodiversity in the farming systems themselves. This paper argues that in forest frontier situations, the most important characteristic of land use systems in terms of C and biodiversity conservation is to be “land-sparing” (i.e. minimizing forest conversion), which requires a certain level of intensification. In land use mosaics, on the other hand, where natural habitat has already been reduced to small fragments, land use practices should also be biodiversity-friendly and have high levels of C storage to complement those in natural vegetation. Agroforestry has a role to play in both situations by making land use more sustainable and by making inhabited reserves ecologically and economically more viable. The paper presents three case studies where different sets of incentives are used to provide communities with the means to conserve C and biodiversity on their land and adjacent forest.

Osborne, T M. (2010) Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico

Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, MexicoOsborne, T M. (2010) Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico (Doctoral dissertation, UC Berkley)

Summary

This dissertation explores contradictions of development within market-based carbon forestry projects that aim to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions associated with climate change. Through the mechanism of the carbon market, forestry-based offset projects are in theory intended to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective manner, while also generating development and livelihood co-benefits for communities that participate by growing carbon-sequestering trees. However, I have found that in the multiple dimensions of sustainable development—the economic, social, and ecological—carbon forestry has largely failed to generate sustainable development benefits. This finding largely corresponds with previous empirical studies exploring questions of development through the carbon market. This dissertation, however, takes a different approach, in an attempt to understand not only project impacts but how and why market-based efforts at sustainable development have attracted participants despite failing to meet stated social and environmental goals.

Soto-Pinto, L., Anzueto, M., Mendoza, J., Ferrer, G. J., & de Jong, B. (2010). Carbon sequestration through agroforestry in indigenous communities of Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems, 78(1)

Carbon sequestration through agroforestry in indigenous communities of Chiapas, MexicoSoto-Pinto, L., Anzueto, M., Mendoza, J., Ferrer, G. J., & de Jong, B. (2010). Carbon sequestration through agroforestry in indigenous communities of Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems, 78(1), 39-51.

Summary

The importance of agroforestry systems as carbon sinks has recently been recognized due to the need of climate change mitigation. The objective of this study was to compare the carbon content in living biomass, soil (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 cm in depth), dead organic matter between a set of non-agroforestry and agroforestry prototypes in Chiapas, Mexico where the carbon sequestration programme called Scolel’te has been carried out. The prototypes compared were: traditional maize (rotational prototype with pioneer native trees evaluated in the crop period), Taungya (maize with timber trees), improved fallow, traditional fallow (the last three rotational prototypes in the crop-free period), Inga-shade-organic coffee, polyculture-shade organic coffee, polyculture-non-organic coffee, pasture without trees, pasture with live fences, and pasture with scattered trees.

Del Rio, P., & Bennett, J. (2003). Estimating the costs of atmospheric carbon reductions in Mexico. Environmental Management & Development Occasional Paper 03. Canberra, ACT: National Centre for Development Studies, The Australian National University

Estimating the Costs of Atmospheric Carbon Reductions in MexicoDel Rio, P., & Bennett, J. (2003). Estimating the costs of atmospheric carbon reductions in Mexico. Environmental Management & Development Occasional Paper 03. Canberra, ACT: National Centre for Development Studies, The Australian National University.

Summary

Trading in carbon emissions is a means of ensuring that supplies with the lowest marginal costs of emissions reduction are commissioned first. To analyse the potential for Mexican suppliers to participate in an emissions trading market, the relative cost-effectiveness of a carbon sequestration project and carbon abatement project is assessed. The marginal costs of emission reductions for each project are estimated and compared using standardised data. The results show that the carbon sequestration project has lower marginal costs for carbon emissions reductions than the technology-based abatement. Factors such as timescale, discounting implementation costs, transaction costs, and technical assumptions are considered in this comparison. The high transaction costs to set up carbon sequestration projects and weak institutional capacity to monitor and enforce agreements are relevant factors. Even though the carbon sequestration project is more cost-effective than the renewable energy power plant, both projects may allow Mexican suppliers to enter a potential international carbon emissions trading market depending on demand and supply conditions and the rules of the market.

Haggar, J., Medina, B., Aguilar, R. M., & Munoz, C. (2013). Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences.

Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern GuatemalaHaggar, J., Medina, B., Aguilar, R. M., & Munoz, C. (2013). Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences. Environmental management, 1-13.

Summary

Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

Shapiro-Garza, E. (2013). Contesting the market-based nature of Mexico’s national payments for ecosystem services programs: Four sites of articulation and hybridization. Geoforum

Contesting the market-based nature of Mexico’s national payments for ecosystem services programs: Four sites of articulation and hybridizationShapiro-Garza, E. (2013). Contesting the market-based nature of Mexico’s national payments for ecosystem services programs: Four sites of articulation and hybridization. Geoforum.

Summary

Mexico’s national payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs pay rural landholders for hydrological services, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and improvement of agroforestry systems. The intention of the programs’ initial funders and designers was to create a PES program that would introduce market efficiency into environmental policy and ‘‘green’’ the market by creating and recognizing the economic value of healthy ecosystems. This article traces the complex processes through which this ideal type conceptualization of market-efficient environmental policy was subverted and the practice altered to more closely fit national interests, rural realities and alternative conceptions of the ‘value’ of socionature. This article examines how the market-based notions of the programs’ designers were hybridized at four distinct sites of articulation: (1) the federal politics of poverty alleviation in Mexico; (2) rural social movements with distinct conceptualizations of ‘conservation’ and ‘development’; (3) the institutional and cultural context of the ecosystem services being commodified; and (4) the socio-natural knowledges and grounded practices of rural Mexico. This analysis is based on a multi-sited ethnography conducted with program participants, intermediary organizations, and designers.

Toledo, V. M., & Moguel, P. (2012). Coffee and sustainability: The multiple values of traditional shaded coffee. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 36(3)

Coffee and Sustainability: The Multiple Values of Traditional Shaded CoffeeToledo, V. M., & Moguel, P. (2012). Coffee and sustainability: The multiple values of traditional shaded coffee. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 36(3), 353-377.

Summary

Coffee is grown widely throughout the tropics on about 5 million farms from 85 countries. Several studies carried out during the last decade revealed the importance of traditional shaded coffee for biodiversity maintenance and protection. However, there is only biological and no interdisciplinary exploration of the multiple values and benefits of these agroforestry systems. We identify and review four kinds of nonbiological values, which complement its tested importance as a refuge for tropical biodiversity, as a contribution to the complete valuation of traditional shaded coffee. By briefly describing a case study in Mexico, we show how traditional shade-grown coffee is critical for areas where sustainable projects are being implemented. This article concludes by exploring three key dimensions of sustainability: economy, landscapes, and livelihoods.

Cortina-Villar, S., Plascencia-Vargas, H., Vaca, R., Schroth, G., Zepeda, Y., Soto-Pinto, L., & Nahed-Toral, J. (2012). Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico

Resolving the Conflict Between Ecosystem Protection and Land UseCortina-Villar, S., Plascencia-Vargas, H., Vaca, R., Schroth, G., Zepeda, Y., Soto-Pinto, L., & Nahed-Toral, J. (2012). Resolving the conflict between ecosystem protection and land use in protected areas of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico. Environmental management, 49(3), 649-662.

Summary

Livelihoods of people living in many protected areas (PAs) around the world are in conflict with biodiversity conservation. In Mexico, the decrees of creation of biosphere reserves state that rural communities with the right to use buffer zones must avoid deforestation and their land uses must become sustainable, a task which is not easily accomplished. The objectives of this paper are: (a) to analyze the conflict between people’s livelihoods and ecosystem protection in the PAs of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas (SMC), paying special attention to the rates and causes of deforestation and (b) to review policy options to ensure forest and ecosystem conservation in these PAs, including the existing payments for environmental services system and improvements thereof as well as options for sustainable land management. We found that the three largest PAs in the SMC are still largely forested, and deforestation rates have decreased since 2000. Cases of forest conversion are located in specific zones and are related to agrarian and political conflicts as well as growing economic inequality and population numbers. These problems could cause an increase in forest loss in the near future.

Sofala

Barbir, J., & Leal, W. (2012). Socio-Environmental Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Implementation as a Climate Change Adaptation Measure Within the N’hambita Community Carbon Project Area, Mozambique

Socio-Environmetnal Evaluation of Drip Irrigation SystemBarbir, J., & Leal, W. (2012). Socio-Environmental Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Implementation as a Climate Change Adaptation Measure Within the N’hambita Community Carbon Project Area, Mozambique. In Climate Change and the Sustainable Use of Water Resources (pp. 663-684). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Summary

n/a

Jindal, R., Kerr, J. M., & Carter, S. (2012). Reducing Poverty Through Carbon Forestry? Impacts of the N’hambita Community Carbon Project in Mozambique.World Development, 40(10)

Reducing Poverty Through Carbon ForestryJindal, R., Kerr, J. M., & Carter, S. (2012). Reducing Poverty Through Carbon Forestry? Impacts of the N’hambita Community Carbon Project in Mozambique.World Development, 40(10), 2123-2135.

Summary

Debates about the potential poverty alleviation impacts of global carbon markets are far from settled. We extend this debate by examining the impacts of a project in Mozambique that pays local people for carbon forestry activities. We conduct before-and-after project comparison using household data from project and non-project villages. Even though the poorest households participate widely in the project, the impact on incomes is small despite generous carbon accounting and contract terms. Leakage and impermanence remain strong concerns. Development activities under the project unrelated to carbon sequestration have a much bigger impact, albeit on a smaller number of households.

Palmer, C., & Silber, T. (2012). Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomes in the N’hambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique.Land use policy29(1), 83-93

Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomesPalmer, C., & Silber, T. (2012). Trade-offs between carbon sequestration and rural incomes in the N’hambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique.Land use policy29(1), 83-93.

Summary

This paper presents a preliminary assessment of trade-offs between carbon sequestration and farmers’ incomes from land-use systems implemented in a community-based project, in Mozambique. Systems either focus on carbon sequestration or combine sequestration with cash crop cultivation. The latter provide carbon payments with potential income from cash crop sales. Uncertainty about the future costs and benefits of maintaining and utilizing the land-use systems over time is addressed via application of Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that compared with sequestration-only systems those that combine sequestration and cash crop production have higher net benefits, although they have less carbon-sequestration potential. Homestead planting provides the most attractive balance among competing policy goals. Carbon payments contribute to cash income and may enable smallholders to overcome initial project investment costs.

Caplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., & Sills, E. (2011). Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: Lessons for learning about REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy

Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projectsCaplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., & Sills, E. (2011). Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: Lessons for learning about REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(2), 152-167.

Summary

The ‘Bali Road Map’ of UNFCCC COP-13 calls for sharing lessons learned from demonstration activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (now known as ‘REDD+’). To develop a feasible yet rigorous strategy for learning from these REDD+ pilots, it is critical to assess previous efforts to evaluate the impacts of ‘pre-REDD+’ avoided deforestation projects. Further, because REDD+ remains a politically volatile issue, with both critics and supporters pointing to the impacts (or lack thereof) of these pre-REDD+ projects, it is important to critically examine the methods employed to assess those impacts. We review the body of literature that makes claims about the socioeconomic and biophysical impacts of pre-REDD+ projects. We find assessments of outcomes or impacts for only five pre-REDD projects. The design, data collection, and analysis methods for understanding the impacts of pre-REDD+ projects frequently lack rigor.

Ryan, C. M., Williams, M., & Grace, J. (2011). Above‐and Belowground Carbon Stocks in a Miombo Woodland Landscape of Mozambique. Biotropica, 43(4), 423-432.Grace, J., Ryan, C. M., Williams, M., Powell, P., Goodman, L., & Tipper, R. (2010)

Above- and Belowground Carbon Stocks in a Miombo Woodland Landscape of MozambiqueRyan, C. M., Williams, M., & Grace, J. (2011). Above‐and Belowground Carbon Stocks in a Miombo Woodland Landscape of Mozambique. Biotropica, 43(4), 423-432.Grace, J., Ryan, C. M., Williams, M., Powell, P., Goodman, L., & Tipper, R. (2010).

Summary

Quantifying ecosystem carbon stocks is vital for understanding the relationship between changes in land use and carbon dioxide emissions. Here, we estimate carbon stocks in an area of miombo woodland in Mozambique, by identifying the major carbon stocks and their variability. Data on the biomass of tree stems and roots, saplings, and soil carbon stocks are reported and compared with other savannas systems around the globe. A new allometric relationship between stem diameter and tree stem and root biomass is presented, based on the destructive harvest of 29 trees. These allometrics are combined with an inventory of 12,733 trees on 58 plots over an area of 27 ha. Ecosystem carbon stocks totaled 110 tC/ha, with 76 tC/ha in the soil carbon pool (to 50 cm depth), 21.2 tC/ha in tree stem biomass, 8.5 tC/ha in tree coarse root biomass, and 3.6 tC/ha in total sapling biomass. Plot-level tree root:stem (R:S) ratio varied from 0.27 to 0.58, with a mean of 0.42, slightly higher than the mean reported for 18 other savanna sites with comparable aboveground biomass (R:S = 0.35). Tree biomass (stem1root) ranged from 3.1 to 86.5 tC/ha, but the mean (32.1 tC/ha) was well constrained (95% CI 28–36.6). In contrast, soil carbon stocks were almost uniformly distributed and varied from 32 to 133 tC/ha. Soil carbon stocks are thus the major uncertainty in the carbon storage of these woodlands. Soil texture explained 53 percent of the variation in soil carbon content, but only 13 percent of the variation in woody carbon stocks.

Williams, M., Ryan, C. M., Rees, R. M., Sambane, E., Fernando, J., & Grace, J. (2008). Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique. Forest Ecology and Management, 254(2), 145-155

Carbon sequestration and biodiversityWilliams, M., Ryan, C. M., Rees, R. M., Sambane, E., Fernando, J., & Grace, J. (2008). Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique. Forest Ecology and Management, 254(2), 145-155.

Summary

Land management in tropical woodlands is being used to sequester carbon (C), alleviate poverty and protect biodiversity, among other benefits. Our objective was to determine how slash-and-burn agriculture affected vegetation and soil C stocks and biodiversity on an area of miombo woodland in Mozambique, and how C stocks and biodiversity responded once agriculture was abandoned. We sampled twenty-eight 0.125 ha plots that had previously been cleared for subsistence agriculture and had been left to re-grow for 2 to 25 years, and fourteen 0.25 ha plots of protected woodlands, recording stem diameter distributions and species, collecting wood for density determination, and soil from 0 to 0.3 m for determination of %C and bulk density.

Trees for Global Benefits

Shames, S., Wollenberg, E., Buck, L. E., Kristjanson, P., Masiga, M., & Biryahwaho, B. (2012). Institutional innovations in African smallholder carbon projects. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.Carter, S. (2009)

institutional innovations in African smallholder systemsShames, S., Wollenberg, E., Buck, L. E., Kristjanson, P., Masiga, M., & Biryahwaho, B. (2012). Institutional innovations in African smallholder carbon projects. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.Carter, S. (2009).

Summary

This paper synthesizes the insights of six African agricultural carbon project case studies and identifies institutional innovations among these projects that are contributing to long-term project success while maximizing benefits and minimizing risk for participating farmers. We review project organization and management, the structure and role of community groups within the projects, costs and benefits for managers and farmers, strategies to manage risks to farmers, and efforts to support women’s participation.

Socio-Economic Benefits In Plan Vivo Projects: Trees For Global Benefits, Uganda. Plan Vivo Foundation and ECOTRUST

Socio-economic benefits in Plan Vivo Projects TFGBSocio-Economic Benefits In Plan Vivo Projects: Trees For Global Benefits, Uganda. Plan Vivo Foundation and ECOTRUST.

Summary

A socio-economic study of the Ugandan project ‘Trees for Global Benefits’ was undertaken (fieldwork from August – November 2008), with the aim of assessing the ability of the project to address rural poverty. The investigation assessed the accessibility of the project to the rural poor, the socio-economic benefits the project on participants as well as looking at wider benefits which the project brings to local communities. The research built on methods developed by the Jindal socio-economic studies in the Nhambita Community Carbon Project, Mozambique Plan Vivo project (2004 and 2008). Data were collected from over 168 villages in 3 Districts in rural Uganda, where the project currently operates using a variety of methods. 768 household surveys were used in the analysis, key informants were interviewed and group discussions were led using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques.

Stringer, L. C., Dougill, A. J., Mkwambisi, D. D., Dyer, J. C., Kalaba, F. K., & Mngoli, M. (2012). Challenges and opportunities for carbon management in Malawi and Zambia. Carbon Management, 3(2)

Challenges and opportunities for carbon managementStringer, L. C., Dougill, A. J., Mkwambisi, D. D., Dyer, J. C., Kalaba, F. K., & Mngoli, M. (2012). Challenges and opportunities for carbon management in Malawi and Zambia. Carbon Management, 3(2), 159-173.

Summary

Policy initiatives targeting carbon management are increasingly linking climate change mitigation and adaptation with efforts to reduce poverty and advance sustainable development. This article draws on empirical semi-structured interview data and documentary analyses to present an assessment of the challenges and opportunities faced by national policymakers and other key stakeholders in achieving these ‘multiple wins’ in Malawi and Zambia. Lessons emerging from these study countries provide a useful basis for informing integrated carbon management, poverty reduction and sustainable development projects more widely in the southern Africa region. The findings reveal that multistakeholder partnerships are increasingly necessary, and we identify examples to illustrate that such collaborations are being established with varying degrees of success. The article suggests that discrete projects need to be adequately coordinated by umbrella organizations operating over larger scales in order to promote the longevity of project impacts at the local scale and to allow experiences and good practices to feed into national policy development. Capacity-building and resource investments across different levels are also shown to be vital.