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Plan Vivo

Glossary

spiderAdaptation Initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects (IPCC definition)

Additionality A project is ‘additional’ if it, and the activities supported by it, could not have happened were it not for the availability of carbon finance

Afforestation The direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land

Agroforestry Growing trees and crops on the same piece of land

Baseline The starting reference point from which the carbon benefits of project activities can be measured or calculated

CO2 (Carbon dioxide) A naturally occurring gas and by-product of burning fossil fuels or biomass, or land-use changes and industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth’s radiative balance.

Carbon pool A system that can store and/or accumulate carbon e.g. above-ground biomass, litter, dead wood and soil organic carbon

Carbon sequestration Direct removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through land-use change, afforestation, reforestation and/or increases in soil carbon (biological sequestration only).

Climate change A change of climate which is attributable directly or indirectly to human activity (UNFCCC Article 1)

Deforestation The direct human-induced conversion of forested land to another land-use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10% threshold

Double-counting Measuring or selling a unit of carbon reduction more than once

Ecosystem A community of plants and animals (including humans) interacting with each other and their environment

Forest A land area of more than 0.5 ha, with a tree canopy cover of more than 10%, which is not primarily under agricultural or other specific non-forest land-use. In the case of young forests or regions where tree growth is climatically suppressed, the trees should be capable of reaching a height of 2m in situ (Kyoto Protocol)

Forest Restoration The process of assisting the recovery of a forest that has been degraded or damaged

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). An independent certifier of sustainably managed forests.

GHGs (Greenhouse gases) Six gases are defined in the Kyoto Protocol as contributing to climate change: carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons and sulphur-hexafluoride. These contribute to the greenhouse effect

ISO (International Standards Organisation). Standards for the quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removal

Leakage The unintended change (normally thought of as being negative although positive leakage can occur) of carbon stocks outside the boundaries of a project resulting directly from the project activity. The change may be an increase in emissions or a decrease in sequestration, resulting in a lower carbon benefit being created by the project

Mitigation Implementing activities or policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and/or enhance carbon sinks

Native Species A species that has arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man, or would occur had it not been removed through past management

Naturalised Species A non-native species that reproduces consistently and sustains populations over more than one life cycle without direct intervention by humans

plan vivo A sustainable land-management plan for a specified piece of land, drawn-up by the land-holder

Plan Vivo Project A project the Plan Vivo Foundation has registered following validation that it is successfully implementing and developing the systems it requires to provide quantifiable ecosystem services and promote sustainable livelihoods

PDD (Project Design Document). The PDD pulls together all information on the project including governance structure and processes

PIN Project Idea Note. A registered project proposal that has been judged by the Plan Vivo Foundation as having the potential to provide effective, quantifiable ecosystem services and promote sustainable livelihoods

Reforestation Direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land, on land that was previously forested but converted to non-forested land

Producer Small-scale farmers, forest dwellers and land-users in developing countries with recognised land tenure or user rights who are part of or have formed organisations and groups such as cooperatives, associations, community-based organisations or other organisational forms. Producers must have a registered Plan Vivo for their own piece of land or be part of a group with a Plan Vivo for a piece of community-owned or managed land. Producers should not be structurally dependent on permanent hired labour, and should manage their land mainly with their own and their family’s labour force.

Reforestation The establishment of forest on land that has been deforested

Small-holding Land where owner or tenant manages the area largely using his or her own labour or that of their family i.e. there is no structural dependence on permanent hired labour

Sustainable Land-Use The planned use of land, consistent with meeting livelihood requirements, protecting soils, watercourses and biodiversity

Technical Specification A methodology for a land-use system used in a Plan Vivo project, including methods for calculatiing carbon credits, baseline assumptions, monitoring and tools for analysing additionality, leakage and risks to permanence

Validation The initial evaluation of a project against Plan Vivo Standards, undertaken by an expert-reviewer

Verification The evaluation of a project post-registration, against the Plan Vivo Standards, by an approved third-party verifier, to ensure continued compliance with Standards

VERs Voluntary Emissions Reductions – reductions made where there is no legal requirement to do so, i.e. out with Kyoto or any other regulatory scheme

Woodland An open, park-like vegetation type with scattered trees at least 5m tall